When people try to persuade someone else, they may want to achieve it with credible, rational, and logical arguments. However, it can be hard to accomplish. Logical fallacies are extremely common. In fact, we are frequently making these kinds of logical errors. There are many types of logical fallacies that can weaken the argument we make. Common logical fallacies include fallacy of composition, red herring, appeal to emotion/tradition/nature, etc.1 Logical fallacies can be the hurdles to critical thinking. Emotion affects every person in both positive and negative ways, yet appealing to emotion in critical thinking and debating can be dangerous. Emotional thinking can make people vulnerable to getting the wrong claim or conclusion. It is also a common method for politicians and the media to manipulate the public. In his article about politico-corporate media manipulation, Elliot Cohen has warned the readers about the use of fear mongering and demagoguery, which are the most common way to affect people emotionally.2 We have all seen politicians claim that their idea must be accepted or follow, or bad things will happen and the country will be destroyed. For example, in 1994, Chao Shao-kang, the pro-unification candidate of the Taipei city mayor, claimed that the Republic of China (Taiwan’s currently formal nation title) would be doomed if the pro-independent candidate was elected. Since then, main candidates in the same campaign have used the same tactic to urge Taiwanese citizens to vote for them.3 Appealing to emotion is often used with specific purposes, but other fallacies are made more naturally. We may not realize our mistake until it is pointed out or the truth completely shocks us. Innocent logical fallacies are common, and they get in the way of pursuing truth or being a better critical thinker. For example, some may argue that supporting ethnic minorities in the United States means that the public safety will be inevitably compromised. However, supporting minorities and supporting police are not necessarily conflicting ideas. Both can be achieved by improving the education level of African-American community and training the police to deal with incidents (such as the one that killed George Floyid) in a better approach.4 According to Higdon, modern journalism is facing multiple challenges. The increasing requirement of making a “viral” report has altered the emphasis of the media industry. Reporters and journalists have to decide to report or ignore a news base on its potential to become viral. Real and valuable news can be ignored, while unidentified stories and fake news have been vastly reported on many occasions.5 One of the most recent examples of misleading information is that Ivermectin, an anti-parasitic medicine which is normally used on horses and cattle, was claimed to be an effective treatment of COVID-19. It is not proved by any scientific research, but many people believe that it can replace the “dangerous” COVID vaccine, even though large doses of Ivermectin is potentially lethal.6 Higdon also mentioned that oppression from governments is also a main hurdle to the freedom of press. 1,285 journalists have died on their job from 1992-2018. Autocratic governments frequently imprison or kill reporters who could pose threats to the authority.7 One of the oppressed journalists was Chen Qiushi, a Chinese journalist who reported the Hong Kong Protest in 2019 and the early COVID outbreak in China. He disappeared after revealing the virus had gone out of control in Wuhan. He was believed to be taken away by Chinese authority in February 2020, and he hasn’t been seen publicly since then.8 In democratic societies, the press is considered to be a valuable estate. The cost of a press failure is high not just for the journalists but also for democracy.9 It is essential to recognize the modern challenge of the freedom of press. Like Thomas Jefferson once said: “Were it left to me to decide if we should have a government with no newspapers, or newspapers without a government… I should not hesitate to prefer the latter.”10 Notes: Jill Bearup. “31 logical fallacies in 8 minutes”. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qf03U04rqGQ (Links to an external site.) Elliot D. Cohen. “Digging Deeper: Politico-Corporate Media Manipulation, Critical Thinking, and Democracy”. Project Censored. November 13. 2013. https://www.projectcensored.org/digging-deeper-politico-corporate-media-manipulation-critical-thinking-democracy/?doing_wp_cron=1600050647.9072310924530029296875 (Links to an external site.) Brian Hioe and Wen Liu. “What Is ‘National Doom’? In Taiwan, It Depends on Whom You Ask”. The Nation. January 9. 2020. https://www.thenation.com/article/world/taiwan-election-national-doom/ 4.“Evaluating News: Logical Fallacies”. Upstate Library. https://uscupstate.libguides.com/news_aware/Fallacies (Links to an external site.) Nolan Higdon, The Anatomy of Fake News: A Critical News Literacy Education (Oakland, CA: University of California Press), 24. 6.”Why You Should Not Use Ivermectin to Treat or Prevent COVID-19”. FDA. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/why-you-should-not-use-ivermectin-treat-or-prevent-covid-19 (Links to an external site.) Nolan Higdon, The Anatomy of Fake News: A Critical News Literacy Education (Oakland, CA: University of California Press), 24. “Chen Qiushi: Chinese journalist missing since February ‘under state supervision’”. BBC. September 24. 2020. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-54277439 (Links to an external site.) Nolan Higdon, The Anatomy of Fake News: A Critical News Literacy Education (Oakland, CA: University of California Press), 25. 10.Ibid, 18. this is the post i’d like you to respond to. Reply in effort to create a dialogue with the post. please use the same resources and please cite all the sources in your response. please make it 300 words with a bibliography
When people try to persuade someone else, they may want to achieve it with credible, rational, and logical arguments. However, it can be hard to accomplish. Logical fallacies are extremely common.
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